Archive for May, 2012

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What is Intelligence? The Three Main Theories of Intelligence – Two Good, One Bad

What is Intelligence? The Three Main Theories of Intelligence – Two Good, One Bad

When people talk about a person’s ‘intelligence’ it is not generally clear what underlying ability or abilities this term refers to. This article is intended to clarify in layman’s terms what psychologists and brain scientists can mean by intelligence. Basically, there are two good theories–and scientists are divided on which is the best theory–and one bad one which all scientists I know of reject. A good theory is one that is supported by the evidence; a bad theory is one that is not.

Official IQ tests such as the WAIS-IV claim to measure individual differences in an underlying ‘ level of cognitive ability given by a single number–your IQ or intelligence quotient. But is it true that there is a single underlying mental ability that we differ in and that explains what makes us different in our cognitive abilities? If someone is good at maths, are they also likely to be good at language comprehension, reasoning, thinking analogically, learning languages and general knowledge, due to their underlying ‘intelligence level’, as this theory implies?

Or are there ‘multiple intelligences’ underlying out abilities–perhaps dozens or even hundreds of them–each independent from each other, and measured by different types of test. If you have an ability in mathematics, is this ability completely unrelated to your ability in learning languages or play general knowledge games like trivial pursuit? If this is the case, is the idea of having a single IQ score quite meaningless? Or alternatively, are there a small number of underlying cognitive abilities (perhaps two or three) that we differ in, which are relatively independent from each other–and which together explain most the differences in our cognitive abilities?

1. The theory of general intelligence (g)–a good theory

A long standing an influential theory for our cognitive abilities states that underlying all our cognitive abilities (math, language comprehension, general knowledge) is a single factor–called general intelligence (also known as unitary intelligence, general cognitive ability, or simply ‘g’ ) that individuals differ on and which explains those differences.

Spearman (1923) proposed that underlying all cognitive abilities a ‘general ability’ factor (g) that all the abilities draw on. Individuals differ in g according to a bell curve distribution on this theory. g can be thought of in terms of information processing power. Some people –those with higher g–can process more information, more efficiently than others. Using a computer analogy, they have more RAM. The more RAM a computer has, the more complex and information-intensive the programs that can be run on it. If you have an IQ of 160 like Quentin Tarantino has, you have lots of RAM, large ‘bandwidth’ for processing information. If you have an IQ of 78 like Muhammad Ali as a young man (whose IQ was measured by the army), then you have less RAM. Muhammad Ali had many talents, but according to the unitary intelligence theory, intelligence wasn’t one of them.

The evidence for this theory is the same evidence that allows us to reject the theory of multiple intelligences. All standardized tests of cognitive ability (and there are dozens of them, measuring a wide range of different abilities) are positively correlated–not perfectly, but to a large degree. This means that if someone scores higher than average on one of those tests, they are likely to score higher than average on all the other tests–even ones that appear totally unrelated. Scoring higher in an arithmetic test means you will probably also score higher in a vocabulary test. This remains true, even when you take other factors like educational background, or family socioeconomic status into account. This is compelling evidence that there is a single underlying level of cognitive ability that is applied to each of the tests and that performance on one test is not independent from performance on another as the multiple intelligence theory claims.

Spearman (1904)–the psychologist who first proposed the g theory–argued that the variance (the person to person variation) of performance between individuals on ANY cognitive task can be attributed to just two underlying factors: g (general intelligence) and s –the skill unique to that particular task. A person could invest relatively more time into developing a specific skill such as arithmetic, and this will raise their score on an arithmetic test relative to another test such as vocabulary that they didn’t train or practice on, but their general intelligence g will still account for most of their performance on the arithmetic test. G is still the most important factor in explaining levels of performance, whatever the test.

2. The theory of multiple intelligences-a bad theory Spearman’s ‘g’ theory is the opposite of the theory of multiple intelligences. The theory of multiple intelligence is an appealing one because it gives some room for everyone to have their own unique strengths in ‘intelligence’. But as we have seen it turns out that our cognitive strengths and weaknesses are best explained by how much time and effort is we have invested into particular skills or types of knowledge. If I take up a technical trade and become good at it, and find that I am struggling with reading fiction, this doesn’t necessarily mean that I have a special ‘intelligence’ for technical thinking and have no ability for reading or language. The fact I struggle with fiction is better explained by the fact that I have invested my intelligence into building up this particular type of expertise and thus see more of a return on that investment in technical modes of cognition. If I had spent as much time reading fiction as I have applying myself to technical problems, chances are I’d be good at that.

3. The theory of fluid intelligence (gF) and crystallized intelligence (gC)–another good theory

This theory builds on the general intelligence theory, and was originally proposed by the psychologist Raymond Cattell back in 1943. It holds that g is meaningful–that we each have a different general intelligence level– but contributing to g are two different types of intelligence: fluid intelligence (gF) and crystallized intelligence (gC ). Fluid g is the ability to reason and problem solve with novel tasks or in unfamiliar contexts (measured reasoning tasks), while crystallized g is defined as acquired knowledge and is measured using tests of general knowledge, mathematics, and vocabulary. This dual way of understanding intelligence allows for knowledge that you have built up in particular areas to compensate for limitations in overall reasoning and problem solving ability– our ‘raw intelligence’. You may succeed due to knowledge about a task or domain (crystallized g), or due to sheer mental ‘horsepower’ (fluid g).

Where the idea of ‘multiple intelligences’ makes sense: as crystallized intelligence that we invest in

Our crystallized intelligence allows for ‘multiple intelligences’. You could have a high level of crystallized intelligence in graphic design, for example, while having only an average level of fluid intelligence. But you will only be able to use your crystallized intelligence for graphic design in situations in which you are familiar and have built up expertise. Unless you have a high level of fluid intelligence when you are confronted with an unfamiliar problem in graphic design–something ‘out of context’, requiring some difficult figuring out-then you are likely to have difficulties. On the flip side, if you have a high level of fluid intelligence, it will take you less time to pick up graphic design (or whatever) skills as you learn your basic skill set. Your learning will be more efficient, and you will find it easier. In general, the more fluid intelligence you have the more you will be able to ‘invest’ it into crystallized intelligence skills and knowledge–the more ‘multiple intelligences’ you will be able to develop if you so wish. In the context of work, the more gF you have the more quickly and efficiently you can be trained. One study showed that it took people in the 110 to 130 IQ range about 1 to 2 years to catch up with the super-charged performance of those with IQs of 130+ who had only 3 months’ experience on the job.

Summary

Looking at all the evidence, both the general intelligence (g) theory, and the fluid intelligence (gF) and crystallized intelligence (gC) are well supported and useful in explaining how we differ in our cognitive abilities. In my view, the fluid and crystallized theory is the more insightful and useful. It helps me understand intelligence-and how we can improve it-better. For instance, research shows that you can do a specific type of ‘working memory’ brain training to increase your fluid intelligence level substantially–but this training does not directly affect your crystallized intelligence.

The author, Dr Mark A. Smith, is a cognitive neuroscientist, author and entrepreneur. Between 2000 and 2003 he was a Lecturer in the Department of Experimental Psychology at the University of Cambridge. His most recent position has been as Assistant Professor at Bilkent University, Turkey. His current research is in fluid intelligence and its evolution in human cognition. He has recently set up a cognitive interventions laboratory for experimental research into brain training tools and brain nutrition.

To find out more of what is known about intelligence and how to increase IQ, visit his website: http://www.iqlift.com/.

Article Source:
http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=M_A_Smith

More Intelligence Articles

Developers getting into a sustainable state of mind

Developers getting into a sustainable state of mind
And a new concern that is more and more on buyers' mind: Is the community sustainable? What are some sustainable elements going into new communities in and around the city? “The development industry has undergone a very significant and costly evolution …
Read more on Calgary Sun

Children 'are scarred for life by porn on internet' as developing minds are
It's in this way that children's minds are being violated. You can't “un-see” something. These images are not easily erasable and become almost tattooed on the cortex. It is a powerful shock to the system.' Dr Struthers, associate professor of …
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What's On Your Mind, New Canaan?
What to do for the weekend, not coffee, was on the mind of Will Bruno, 20, of New Canaan while at Zumbach's Gourmet Coffee on Thursday. John Bruno, 21, dropped in on his brother Will on Thursday. What's on his mind? His hair.
Read more on The New Canaan Daily Voice

Digital media changes minds
The theme of this year's NAACP Leadership 500 Summit is Generations of Power; the central thought behind it is that leaders are not born, they're developed. Either because of opportunity or necessity, a person takes charge and leads the way.
Read more on S2Smagazine.com (blog)

TI-82 TEXAS INSTRUMENT Graphic Calculator 4 Mid-Hi-Sch/College Student

TI-82 TEXAS INSTRUMENT Graphic Calculator 4 Mid-Hi-Sch/College Student

for Middle-High School and College students taking Algebra, Geometry, Calculus, and Science Courses. Asking

Price: $ 40

Location

Jackson, USA

D-LINK Router (DIR-655 Xtreme N Gigabit Router)

D-LINK Router (DIR-655 Xtreme N Gigabit Router)

I have another router and am selling this one. It has never been used. Still in the box with installation CD, ethernet cable, power adapter, and owners manual. Contact Jay at if interested. Below are the information of the router:

The D-Link Xtreme N-Wireless Gigabit Router (DIR-655) is a draft 2.0 802.11n compliant device that delivers up to 14x faster speeds* and 6x farther range* than 802.11g while staying backward compatible with 802.11g devices. Connect the Xtreme N Gigabit Router to a cable or DSL modem and provide high-speed Internet access to multiple computers, game consoles, and media players. Create a secure wireless network to share images, files, music, videos, printers, and network storage.

Price: $ 50

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Undetectable (Great Minds Thriller)

Undetectable (Great Minds Thriller)

Undetectable (Great Minds Thriller)

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Related Minds Products

How big is your mind?

Some cool Minds images:

How big is your mind?
Minds
Image by tamahaji
"Great minds discuss ideas.
Average minds discuss events.
Small minds discuss people."
-a famous quote from Eleanor Roosevelt

A Beautiful Mind…
Minds
Image by -RejiK

Thoughts of a beautiful mind glow a glow
In the atmosphere, to add a spark of beauty
Through thoughts, of a beautiful mind
Which adds a light, to shine in a beautiful mind.

-Rohit Sapra

where is my mind?
Minds
Image by _hold3n
on air: Where is my mind?

Ooooooh – stop
With your feet in the air and your head on the ground
Try this trick and spin it, yeah
Your head will collapse
But there’s nothing in it
And you’ll ask yourself

Where is my mind?
Where is my mind?
Where is my mind?

Way out in the water
See it swimmin’

I was swimmin’ in the Carribean
Animals were hiding behind the rock
Except the little fish
But they told me, he swears
Tryin’ to talk to me to me to me

Where is my mind?
Where is my mind?
Where is my mind?

Way out in the water
See it swimmin’ ?

With your feet in the air and your head on the ground
Try this trick and spin it, yeah
Your head will collapse
If there’s nothing in it
And you’ll ask yourself

Where is my mind?
Where is my mind?
Where is my mind?

Ooooh
With your feet in the air and your head on the ground
Ooooh
Try this trick and spin it, yeah
Ooooh
Ooooh

[where is my mind – Pixies]

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Nice Intelligence photos

A few nice Intelligence images I found:

501st Military Intelligence Brigade brings the fighting spirit of the “Red Dragons” to Humphreys
Intelligence
Image by USAG-Humphreys
On Sept. 19 the athleticism, winning spirit, and teamwork of the 501st Military Intelligence Brigade, “Red Dragons”, were put to the test as they held their annual Organizational Day. The Soldiers of the 501st Military Intelligence Brigade are stationed all over the Korean Peninsula from the “Z to the Sea”, but gathered together at Zoeckler Station to see who among the “Red Dragons” were champions. Col. Raul Escribano kicked off the day by energizing the troops and their families by expressing unit cohesion, camaraderie, and esprit de corps. In total, over 1,000 “Red Dragon” Soldiers, KATUSAs, Unit 1998th (ROK Army), and their families were brought together for the 2009 501st Military Intelligence Brigade Organizational Day.

The four 501st MI BDE unit teams consisted of the HHC, 501st MI BDE and 524th MI BN pairing together, and the 527th, 524th, and 3rd Military Intelligence Battalions respectively. Each team contributed their top contender(s) to participate in the seven sport events: 5K run, soccer, basketball, flag football, beach volleyball, 4X300 relay, and tug-of-war.
The Families of the 501st MI BDE enjoyed a fun filled day of face painting, egg toss and the water balloon toss. All the children left with painted faces, a little wet and sticky from the balloon and egg toss, but smiling from ear to ear as they clutched their candy filled goody bag.

The day concluded with closing remarks from Col. Raul Escribano and Command Sgt. Maj. John Plaster and the trophies and streamers presentation to those teams placing 1st and 2nd for each event. The HHC, 501st MI BDE and 524th MI BN combined Team earned the bragging rights as the overall champions of the 2009 “Red Dragon” Organization Day. 532nd MI BN can in 2nd Place and 3rd Place was presented to the 527th MI BN.

The 501st Military Intelligence Brigade conducts 24/7 operations in support of warfighters. It’s not often that this Brigade that is spread all over the Korean Peninsula has an opportunity to set away from the work place and energize themselves with the winning spirit of the “Red Dragons”!

U.S. Army photos by Sgt. Shawn Cassatt

For more information on U.S. Army Garrison Humphreys and living and working in Korea visit: USAG-Humphreys’ official web site or check out our online videos.

501st Military Intelligence Brigade brings the fighting spirit of the “Red Dragons” to Humphreys
Intelligence
Image by USAG-Humphreys
On Sept. 19 the athleticism, winning spirit, and teamwork of the 501st Military Intelligence Brigade, “Red Dragons”, were put to the test as they held their annual Organizational Day. The Soldiers of the 501st Military Intelligence Brigade are stationed all over the Korean Peninsula from the “Z to the Sea”, but gathered together at Zoeckler Station to see who among the “Red Dragons” were champions. Col. Raul Escribano kicked off the day by energizing the troops and their families by expressing unit cohesion, camaraderie, and esprit de corps. In total, over 1,000 “Red Dragon” Soldiers, KATUSAs, Unit 1998th (ROK Army), and their families were brought together for the 2009 501st Military Intelligence Brigade Organizational Day.

The four 501st MI BDE unit teams consisted of the HHC, 501st MI BDE and 524th MI BN pairing together, and the 527th, 524th, and 3rd Military Intelligence Battalions respectively. Each team contributed their top contender(s) to participate in the seven sport events: 5K run, soccer, basketball, flag football, beach volleyball, 4X300 relay, and tug-of-war.
The Families of the 501st MI BDE enjoyed a fun filled day of face painting, egg toss and the water balloon toss. All the children left with painted faces, a little wet and sticky from the balloon and egg toss, but smiling from ear to ear as they clutched their candy filled goody bag.

The day concluded with closing remarks from Col. Raul Escribano and Command Sgt. Maj. John Plaster and the trophies and streamers presentation to those teams placing 1st and 2nd for each event. The HHC, 501st MI BDE and 524th MI BN combined Team earned the bragging rights as the overall champions of the 2009 “Red Dragon” Organization Day. 532nd MI BN can in 2nd Place and 3rd Place was presented to the 527th MI BN.

The 501st Military Intelligence Brigade conducts 24/7 operations in support of warfighters. It’s not often that this Brigade that is spread all over the Korean Peninsula has an opportunity to set away from the work place and energize themselves with the winning spirit of the “Red Dragons”!

U.S. Army photos by Sgt. Shawn Cassatt

For more information on U.S. Army Garrison Humphreys and living and working in Korea visit: USAG-Humphreys’ official web site or check out our online videos.

501st Military Intelligence Brigade brings the fighting spirit of the “Red Dragons” to Humphreys
Intelligence
Image by USAG-Humphreys
On Sept. 19 the athleticism, winning spirit, and teamwork of the 501st Military Intelligence Brigade, “Red Dragons”, were put to the test as they held their annual Organizational Day. The Soldiers of the 501st Military Intelligence Brigade are stationed all over the Korean Peninsula from the “Z to the Sea”, but gathered together at Zoeckler Station to see who among the “Red Dragons” were champions. Col. Raul Escribano kicked off the day by energizing the troops and their families by expressing unit cohesion, camaraderie, and esprit de corps. In total, over 1,000 “Red Dragon” Soldiers, KATUSAs, Unit 1998th (ROK Army), and their families were brought together for the 2009 501st Military Intelligence Brigade Organizational Day.

The four 501st MI BDE unit teams consisted of the HHC, 501st MI BDE and 524th MI BN pairing together, and the 527th, 524th, and 3rd Military Intelligence Battalions respectively. Each team contributed their top contender(s) to participate in the seven sport events: 5K run, soccer, basketball, flag football, beach volleyball, 4X300 relay, and tug-of-war.
The Families of the 501st MI BDE enjoyed a fun filled day of face painting, egg toss and the water balloon toss. All the children left with painted faces, a little wet and sticky from the balloon and egg toss, but smiling from ear to ear as they clutched their candy filled goody bag.

The day concluded with closing remarks from Col. Raul Escribano and Command Sgt. Maj. John Plaster and the trophies and streamers presentation to those teams placing 1st and 2nd for each event. The HHC, 501st MI BDE and 524th MI BN combined Team earned the bragging rights as the overall champions of the 2009 “Red Dragon” Organization Day. 532nd MI BN can in 2nd Place and 3rd Place was presented to the 527th MI BN.

The 501st Military Intelligence Brigade conducts 24/7 operations in support of warfighters. It’s not often that this Brigade that is spread all over the Korean Peninsula has an opportunity to set away from the work place and energize themselves with the winning spirit of the “Red Dragons”!

U.S. Army photos by Sgt. Shawn Cassatt

For more information on U.S. Army Garrison Humphreys and living and working in Korea visit: USAG-Humphreys’ official web site or check out our online videos.

Church of Scientology Nashville Celebrates Third Anniversary in New Home

Nashville, TN (PRWEB) May 05, 2012

The Church of Scientology & Celebrity Centre Nashville held a festive celebration for parishioners and distinguished guests at the historic Fall School Building at 8th Avenue South, Nashville, which has served as its new home since its grand opening on April 25, 2009.

Rev. Brian Fesler, pastor of the Church, welcomed and acknowledged the many friends present from area churches, community organizations and local government.

Guest speakers acknowledged the Church for its work in promoting interfaith, human rights and community outreach programs. Scientologists have also spearheaded drug education and prevention throughout Tennessee. And Nashville area Scientology Volunteer Ministers came to the aid of neighbors throughout Nashville in May 2010 when floodwaters inundated the city. They also coordinated community projects to collect urgently needed supplies for the victims of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and provided hands-on relief to those devastated by the record tornado outbreak in Alabama in 2011.

The Church of Scientology & Celebrity Centre Nashville is an Ideal Scientology Organization, configured to realize the fulfillment of Founder L. Ron Hubbards vision for the religion. It not only provides the ideal facilities to service Scientologists on their ascent to greater states of spiritual awareness and freedom, but it is also designed to serve as a home for the entire community and a meeting ground of cooperative effort to uplift citizens of all denominations.

Church President Corinne Sullivan explained that as a celebrity centre, this Church has an additional and unique mission. L. Ron Hubbard wrote: The artist has an enormous role in the enhancement of todays and the creation of tomorrows reality. He operates in a rank in advance of science as to the necessities and requirements of man. The elevation of a culture can be measured directly by the numbers of its people working in the field of aesthetics. Celebrity Centres are those special Churches of Scientology designed to enhance a culture by enhancing the artist.

To learn more about the Church of Scientology, its programs and courses, visit http://www.Scientology.org or call the Nashville Church, at (615) 687-4600.

About The New Scientology Churches

In 2012, new Scientology Churches have opened in Hamburg, Germany; Sacramento, California; and Cincinnati, Ohio. Other Ideal Churches of Scientology have opened in recent years in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota; New York, New York; Washington, D.C.; Tampa, Florida; Seattle, Washington; Las Vegas, Nevada; Los Angeles, Pasadena and Inglewood, California; Qu